Sustain. Environ. Res., 23(6), 403-411 (2013)
Mahmoud A. Elsheikh, Hazem I. Saleh, Ibrahim M. Rashwan and Mohammed M. El-Samadoni
Water distribution network, calibration, residual chlorine, optimal design
Large Egyptian cities are characterized by having old water distribution networks upon which new extensions are linked in order to serve new areas, adding complexity to an aging network where full rehabilitation may not be practical due to economic constraints. In this research, the water distribution network of Tanta City, one of the major Egyptian cities, was studied for optimizing its design and extension taking into consideration the effect of aging of the network and the most practical approach for its future configuration. A Water CAD Haestad software for hydraulic model of the network was carried out backed with field data and tests to check the main parameters of concern of the model for calibration and further use for future extension of the network. System optimization was carried considering main and secondary loops that included 588 pipes. Calibration was conducted through three types of readings namely static pressure, fire flow tests and extended period readings. Calibration of residual chlorine has been done on the network after hydraulic calibration by determining bulk and wall reactions. After calibration, optimal design has been determined for the model through defining an objective function of minimum cost design satisfying all constraints entered to the program considering coming plans for next 10 yr.